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New Books on Foreign, International, and Comparative Law
Accessible Technology and the Developing World by
Call Number: HV1569.5 .A2273 2021
When digital content and technologies are designed in a way that is inaccessible for persons with disabilities, they are locked out of commerce, education, employment, and access to government information. In developing areas of the world, as new technical infrastructures are being built, itis especially important to ensure that accessibility is a key design goal. Unfortunately, nearly all research on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) accessibility and innovation for persons with disabilities-whether from the legal, technical, or development fields-has focused on developedcountries, with very little being written about developing world initiatives. Accessible Technology and the Developing World aims to change this, by bringing increased attention to ICT accessibility in developing areas.This book brings together a unique combination of contributors with diverse disciplinary backgrounds, including authors from well-known non-governmental organizations, significant United Nations entities, and universities in both the developing and developed world. Together, they present a uniqueand much needed review of this critical and growing area of work, and primarily address three core themes - the lack of attention given to innovations taking place in the developing world, the need to ensure that infrastructures in the Global South do not present barriers to people withdisabilities, and the need to exercise caution when applying techniques from the Global North to the Global South that won't transfer effectively.This book will be of use to researchers in the fields of civil rights, development studies, disability rights, disability studies, human-computer interaction and accessibility, human rights, international law, political science, and universal design.
AI Development and the 'Fuzzy Logic' of Chinese Cyber Security and Data Laws by
Call Number: KNQ80.C65 P37 2022
The book examines the extent to which Chinese cyber and network security laws and policies act as a constraint on the emergence of Chinese entrepreneurialism and innovation. Specifically, how the contradictions and tensions between data localisation laws (as part of Network Sovereignty policies) affect innovation in artificial intelligence (AI). The book surveys the globalised R&D networks, and how the increasing use of open-source platforms by leading Chinese AI firms during 2017-2020, exacerbated the apparent contradiction between Network Sovereignty and Chinese innovation. The drafting of the Cyber Security Law did not anticipate the changing nature of globalised AI innovation. It is argued that the deliberate deployment of what the book refers to as 'fuzzy logic' in drafting the Cyber Security Law allowed regulators to subsequently interpret key terms regarding data in that Law in a fluid and flexible fashion to benefit Chinese innovation.
Articulating Security: The United Nations and Its Infra-Law by
Call Number: KZ5588 .R64 2022
We live in a world of mobile security threats and endemic structural injustice, but the United Nations' go-to solution of strategic management fails to stop threats and perpetuates injustice. Articulating Security is a radical critique of the UN's counter-terrorism strategy. A brilliant new reading of Foucault's concept of disciplinary power and a daring foray into psychoanalysis combine to challenge and redefine how international lawyers talk about security and management. It makes a bold case for the place of law in collective security for, if law is to help tackle injustice in security governance, then it must relinquish its authority and embrace anger. The book sounds an alarm to anyone who assumes law is not implicated in global security, and cautions those who assume that it ought to be.
Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms by
Call Number: KZ5645.5.A98 B63 2022
Autonomous weapons systems seem to be on the path to becoming accepted technologies of warfare. The weaponization of artificial intelligence raises questions about whether human beings will maintain control of the use of force. The notion of meaningful human control has become a focus of international debate on lethal autonomous weapons systems among members of the United Nations: many states have diverging ideas about various complex forms of human-machine interaction and the point at which human control stops being meaningful. In Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms Ingvild Bode and Hendrik Huelss present an innovative study of how testing, developing, and using weapons systems with autonomous features shapes ethical and legal norms, and how standards manifest and change in practice. Autonomous weapons systems are not a matter for the distant future - some autonomous features, such as in air defence systems, have been in use for decades. They have already incrementally changed use-of-force norms by setting emerging standards for what counts as meaningful human control. As UN discussions drag on with minimal progress, the trend towards autonomizing weapons systems continues. A thought-provoking and urgent book, Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms provides an in-depth analysis of the normative repercussions of weaponizing artificial intelligence.
Beyond Rights: The Nisga'a Final Agreement and the Challenges of Modern Treaty Relationships by
Call Number: KIC6881.N58 B53 2021
In 2000, the Nisga'a treaty marked the culmination of over one hundred years of Nisga'a people protesting, petitioning, litigating, and negotiating for recognition of their rights. Beyond Rights explores this ground-breaking achievement and its impact. The Nisga'a were trailblazers in gaining Supreme Court recognition of unextinguished Aboriginal title, and the treaty marked a turning point in the relationship between First Nations and provincial and federal governments. Using this treaty as a pivotal case study, Carole Blackburn analyzes treaty making as a way to address historical injustice and to achieve contemporary legal recognition, and explores the possibilities for a distinct Indigenous citizenship in a settler state.
Chinese Antitrust Exceptionalism by
Call Number: KNQ3242 .Z43 2021
China's rise as an economic superpower has caused growing anxieties in the West. Europe is now applying stricter scrutiny over takeovers by Chinese state-owned giants, while the United States is imposing aggressive sanctions on leading Chinese technology firms such as Huawei, TikTok, and WeChat. Given the escalating geopolitical tensions between China and the West, are there any hopeful prospects for economic globalization? In her compelling new book Chinese Antitrust Exceptionalism, Angela Zhang examines the most important and least understood tactic that China can deploy to counter western sanctions: antitrust law. Zhang reveals how China has transformed antitrust law into a powerful economic weapon, supplying theory and case studies to explain its strategic application over the course of the Sino-US tech war. Zhang also exposes the vast administrative discretion possessed by the Chinese government, showing how agencies can leverage the media to push forward aggressive enforcement. She further dives into the bureaucratic politics that spurred China's antitrust regulation, providing an incisive analysis of how divergent missions, cultures, and structures of agencies have shaped regulatory outcomes. More than a legal analysis, Zhang offers a political and economic study of our contemporary moment. She demonstrates that Chinese exceptionalism-as manifested in the way China regulates and is regulated, is reshaping global regulation and that future cooperation relies on the West comprehending Chinese idiosyncrasies and China achieving greater transparency through integration with its Western rivals. Watch a short introductory video from the author: www.youtube.com/watch?v=vH3tFxWIP0Q
Climate Change and Maritime Boundaries by
Call Number: KZA1450 .S65 2022
Coastal States exercise sovereignty and sovereign rights in maritime zones, measured from their coasts. The limits to these maritime zones are bound to recede as sea levels rise and coastlines are eroded. Furthermore, ocean acidification and ocean warming are increasingly threatening coastal ecosystems, which States are obligated to protect and manage sustainably. These changes, accelerating as the planet heats, prompt an urgent need to clarify and update the international law of maritime zones. This book explains how bilateral maritime boundaries are established, and how coastal instability and vulnerable ecosystems can affect the delimitation process through bilateral negotiations or judicial settlement. Árnadóttir engages with core concepts within public international law to address emerging issues, such as diminishing territory and changing boundaries. She proposes viable ways of addressing future challenges and sets out how fundamental changes to the marine environment can justify termination or revision of settled maritime boundaries and related agreements.
Constitutional Crowdsourcing: Democratising Original and Derived Constituent Power in the Network Society by
Call Number: K3165 .N56 2021
Conceptualising the new phenomenon of constitutional crowdsourcing, this incisive book examines democratic legitimacy, participation, and decision-making in constitutions and constitutionalism. It analyses how the wider population can be given a voice in constitution-making and in constitutional interpretation and control, thus promoting the exercise of original and derived constituent power. Chapters investigate the complex relationship and potential relationships between crowdsourcing, democratic constitutionalism and the network society, exploring the strengths and weaknesses of crowdsourcing in this area. This thought-provoking book concludes that constitutionalism is further strengthened because the democratic legitimacy of the constitutional text is reinforced via this mechanism. Antoni Abat i Ninet conceives constitutional crowdsourcing as an epistemic response, an opportunity to place the people at the heart of constitutionalism in the new digital era. Engaging and accessible, Constitutional Crowdsourcingwill be of benefit to students and scholars of legal theory, constitutional and administrative law, political science and constitutions. Its forward-looking aspect will also appeal to public officers seeking a better understanding of the potential impact of constitutional crowdfunding.
Constitutionalism in Context by
Call Number: K3165 .C6255 2021
With its emphasis on emerging and cutting-edge debates in the study of comparative constitutional law and politics, its suitability for both research and teaching use, and its distinguished and diverse cast of contributors, this handbook is a must-have for scholars and instructors alike. This versatile volume combines the depth and rigor of a scholarly reference work with features for teaching in law and social science courses. Its interdisciplinary case-study approach provides political and historical as well as legal context: each modular chapter offers an overview of a topic and a jurisdiction, followed by a case study that simultaneously contextualizes both. Its forward-looking and highly diverse selection of topics and jurisdictions fills gaps in the literature on the Global South as well as the West. A timely section on challenges to liberal constitutional democracy addresses pressing concerns about democratic backsliding and illiberal and/or authoritarian regimes.
The Continental Shelf Delimitation Beyond 200 Nautical Miles by
Call Number: KZA1660 .L53 2022
The Continental Shelf Delimitation Beyond 200 Nautical Miles provides an up-to-date and informed analysis of the now fast developing, yet confusing, field of the law of maritime delimitation. It examines the procedural matters in relation to the competence of international courts and tribunals in the light of the institutional framework of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and discusses the methodological questions arising out of the delimitation process. The book engages with the key concepts of maritime entitlement, delineation and delimitation with a view to developing a coherent and consistent approach to the delimitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. Essentially, it argues that the delimitation of the continental shelf will be unified with existing maritime delimitation, and a common approach to maritime boundary-making within and beyond 200 nautical miles is likely to emerge.
Democracies and International Law by
Call Number: KZ1250 .G56 2021
Democracies and authoritarian regimes have different approaches to international law, grounded in their different forms of government. As the balance of power between democracies and non-democracies shifts, it will have consequences for international legal order. Human rights may face severe challenges in years ahead, but citizens of democratic countries may still benefit from international legal cooperation in other areas. Ranging across several continents, this volume surveys the state of democracy-enhancing international law, and provides ideas for a way forward in the face of rising authoritarianism.
Detention by Non-State Armed Groups under International Law by
Call Number: KZ6405.N66 H44 2022
During armed conflict, non-State armed groups deprive individuals of their liberty. While this is not a new phenomenon, its pervasiveness is reflected by recent examples in Colombia, Libya, Syria, Ukraine, Mali and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Yet, examining these activities goes beyond its mere acknowledgment. It involves questions concerning their legality and the non-State armed groups' motivations when depriving individuals of their liberty. Drawing on his personal experiences while working for various humanitarian organizations, Ezequiel Heffes aims at elucidating how international law can be used as a protective tool in relation to individuals placed in detention by non-State armed groups. Based on case studies of selected groups and a normative and doctrinal analysis, he proposes minimum humanitarian principles applicable to those situations. By addressing a contemporary issue that touches upon a number of legal regimes, this study makes a valuable contribution to the law applicable in armed conflict.
Disability in International Human Rights Law by
Call Number: K637 .D43 2021
This book examines what international human rights law has gained from the new elements in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It explores how the CRPD is intricately bound up with other international instruments by studying the relationship between the Convention rights and those protected by other human rights treaties, as well as the overall objectives of the UN. Using a social model lens on disability, the book shows how the Convention sheds new light on the very notion of human rights. The book provides a theoretical framework which explicitly integrates disability into international human rights law. It explains how the CRPD challenges the legal subject by drawing attention to distinct forms of embodiment, before introducing the idea of the 'dis-abled subject', which stems from a recognition that all individuals encounter disability-related issues during their lives. The book also shows how to apply this theoretical framework to several rights and highlights the consequences for the implementation of human rights treaties as a whole. It builds upon the literature of disability studies and legal and political theory, as well as drawing upon the recommendations of treaty bodies and reports of UN agencies and disabled people's organisations. This book thereby provides an agenda-setting analysis for all human rights experts, by showing the benefits of placing disabled people at the heart of international human rights law.
Foreign Investment Law Including Investor-State Arbitrations in a Nutshell by
Call Number: K3830 .F64 2022 (Practical Skills)
Home country investors merge or acquire existing businesses or establish new companies in host countries. Investors purchase stocks and bonds on foreign exchanges, and sometimes foreign sovereign debt. The number of transactions and sums involved are staggering. Unlike international trade law governed significantly by the World Trade Organization, no uniform body of foreign investment law exists. Hence foreign investment law is predominantly national, occasionally regional, in character. There are many intriguing variations on foreign investment law around the world. Foreign Investment Law including Investor-State Arbitrations in a Nutshell, 3d reviews the law, practice, regulation and dispute settlement of foreign investment. Following the Nutshell tradition, citations are minimized creating a book that reads easily. Students, academics, lawyers, government officials and people in business will find it useful. This Nutshell introduces foreign investment entry and operational control patterns, investment-related technology transfers, and expropriation issues. It also explores the multitude of bilateral investment treaties (BITs). Investment regimes under free trade agreements (FTAs) are considered, with special attention to the dynamic rules of NAFTA 1994 and its USMCA 2020 successor. Controversial foreign investor-host state arbitration awards and systems are closely examined. Investing in China, Europe and North America are presented as "case studies".
Functional Responsibility of International Organisations: The European Union and International Economic Law by
Call Number: KZ4850 .L45 2021
This book provides a novel approach to the allocation of international responsibility in a multilayered structure like the European Union. Introducing a new concept of functional international responsibility, this study finds that in international economic law the focus of international dispute settlement bodies is not on the responsible party, but on a party best placed to bear responsibility. The book offers a comprehensive analysis of international rules of responsibility and international dispute settlement practice, primarily that of the World Trade Organization and investment arbitration. The study offers a practically applicable approach to questions of international responsibility which will assist international adjudicators, EU and Member States' officials and third country government agents who negotiate economic agreements and are involved in international economic disputes. The book is also relevant to those interested in the governance and accountability questions under the new EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement.
The Function of Equity in International Law by
Call Number: K247 .T58 2021
This book provides a systematic and comprehensive study of the legal concept of equity as it operates in contemporary international law. A principle with a long pedigree, equity has been present in legal thought and in municipal legal systems since antiquity. Introduced in international legal decisions through claims commissions and arbitral tribunals, equity became progressively part and parcel of the international law mainstream. From international cultural heritage law to the law on climate change, from maritime boundary delimitations to decisions on security for costs in investment arbitration, the relevance of equity is more far-reaching than has previously been acknowledged. In contrast with earlier studies on the topic, this book is informed by a body of judicial and arbitral case law that has never been so substantial and varied. It also draws extensively on the prolific case law of investment tribunals, gaining insights from a valuable source that is typically overlooked in public international law scholarship. As the importance of international law increases, covering continuously new domains, the value of equity increases with it. It is this new equity in the international law of the 21st century that this book explores.
Global Intersectionality and Contemporary Human Rights by
Call Number: KZ1266 .B66 2021
Global Intersectionality and Contemporary Human Rights argues for an expansive definition of human rights, one that encompasses the harm caused by multiple, intersecting forms of subordination. Intersectionality theory posits that aspects of identity, such as race and gender, are mutuallyconstitutive and intersect to create unique experiences of discrimination and subordination. Perpetrators of sexual violence in armed conflict, of example, often target women based on both gender and ethnicity. Human rights remedies that fail to capture the intersectional nature of human rightsviolations do not offer comprehensive redress to victims.This title explores the influence of intersectionality theory on human rights in the modern era and traces the evolution of intersectionality as a theoretical framework in the United States and around the world. It draws upon feminist theory and human rights jurisprudence to argue that scholars andactivists have under-utilized intersectionality theory in the global discourse of human rights. As the central intergovernmental organization charged with the protection of human rights, the United Nations has been slow to embrace the insights gained from intersectionality theory. This work arguesthat the United Nations and other human rights organizations must more actively embrace intersectionality as an analytical framework in order to fully address the complexity of human rights violations around the world.
Global Regulatory Standards in Environmental and Health Disputes by
Call Number: K3585 .F67 2021
Global regulatory standards are emerging from the environmental and health jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice, the World Trade Organization, under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and investor-state dispute settlement. Most prominent are the three standards of regulatory coherence, due regard for the rights of others, and due diligence in the prevention of harm. These global regulatory standards are a phenomenon of our times, representing a new contribution to the ordering of the relationship between domestic and international law, and a revised conception of sovereignty in an increasingly pluralistic global legal era. However, the legitimacy of the resulting 'standards-enriched' international law remains open to question. International courts and tribunals should not be the only fora in which these standards are elaborated, and many challenges and opportunities lie ahead in the ongoing development of global regulatory standards. Debate over whether regulatory coherence should go beyond reasonableness and rationality requirements and require proportionality stricto sensu in the relationship between regulatory measures and their objectives is central. Due regard, the most novel of the emerging standards, may help protect international law's legitimacy claims in the interim. Meanwhile, all actors should attend to the integration rather than the fragmentation of international law, and to changes in the status of private actors.
History, Politics, Law: Thinking Through the International by
Call Number: KZ3410 .H57 2021
Historians of political thought and international lawyers have both expanded their interest in the formation of the present global order. History, Politics, Law is the first express encounter between the two disciplines, juxtaposing their perspectives on questions of method and substance. The essays throw light on their approaches to the role of politics and the political in the history of the world beyond the single polity. They discuss the contrast between practice and theory as well as the role of conceptual and contextual analyses in both fields. Specific themes raised for both disciplines include statehood, empires and the role of international institutions, as well as the roles of economics, innovation and gender. The result is a vibrant cross-section of contrasts and parallels between the methods and practices of the two disciplines, demonstrating the many ways in which both can learn from each other.
Hong Kong Competition Law by
Call Number: KNQ9329.3 .C44 2021
This is the first academic monograph on the new competition law in Hong Kong. It provides an overview of the historical background of the Competition Ordinance, highlighting the debate and the process that led to the adoption of the Ordinance. It offers detailed comparative and theoretical analysis of the key provisions of the Ordinance, focusing on the First Conduct Rule, the Second Conduct Rule, the exclusions and exemptions, and the procedural provisions. It draws on overseas legislation and jurisprudence that inspired the provisions in the Ordinance and incorporates a detailed examination of the latest cases decided by the Competition Tribunal. It engages in relevant academic debates and theoretical analysis of how competition law in Hong Kong should develop in light of its unique economic and political contexts. It concludes by setting forth of a set of recommendations for further reform.
Humane: How the United States Abandoned Peace and Reinvented War by
Call Number: KZ6385 .M835 2021
A prominent historian exposes the dark side of making war more humane In the years since 9/11, we have entered an age of endless war. With little debate or discussion, the United States carries out military operations around the globe. It hardly matters who's president or whether liberals or conservatives operate the levers of power. The United States exercises dominion everywhere. InHumane:How the United States Abandoned Peace and Reinvented War, Samuel Moyn asks a troubling but urgent question: What if efforts to make war more ethical--to ban torture and limit civilian casualties--have only shored up the military enterprise and made it sturdier? To advance this case, Moyn looks back at a century and a half of passionate arguments about the ethics of using force. In the nineteenth century, the founders of the Red Cross struggled mightily to make war less lethal even as they acknowledged its inevitability. Leo Tolstoy prominentlyopposed their efforts, reasoning that war needed to be abolished, not reformed--and over the subsequent century, a popular movement to abolish war flourished on both sides of the Atlantic. Eventually, however, reformers shifted their attention from opposing the crime of war to opposing war crimes, with fateful consequences. The ramifications of this shift became apparent in the post-9/11 era. By that time, the US military had embraced the agenda of humane war, driven both by the availability of precision weaponry and the need to protect its image. The battle shifted from the streets to the courtroom, where the tactics of the war on terror were litigated but its foundational assumptions went without serious challenge. These trends only accelerated during the Obama and Trump presidencies. Even as the two administrations spoke of American power and morality in radically different tones, they ushered in the second decade of the "forever" war. Humane is the story of how America went off to fight and never came back, and how armed combat was transformed from an imperfect tool for resolving disputes into an integral component of the modern condition. As American wars have become more humane, they have also become endless. This provocative book argues that this development might not represent progress at all.
The Institute of International Law's Resolution on the Equality of Parties Before International Investment Tribunals by
Call Number: K3830 .M389 2022
The Institute of International Law's 2019 Resolution on the Equality of Parties before International Investment Tribunals represents a major step forward in codification of this essential principle as it applies to investor-state dispute settlement: a principle whose application in this context has attracted increasing controversy in recent years. In this commentary, Campbell McLachlan, who served as the Institute's Rapporteur on the topic, explains the context for the Resolution and sets forth an article-by-article analysis of its provisions, drawing upon a wealth of prior case-law as well as the discussions within the Institute that led to the Resolution. The resulting text is designed to assist counsel and tribunals in investment cases, as well as contribute to the wider debate on the reform of investor-state dispute settlement.
International Environmental Law in a Nutshell by
Call Number: K3585.6 .G87 2022 (Practical Skills)
This well received book, informed by its interdisciplinary framework, succinctly yet accurately traverses and illuminates the full gamut of international environmental issues, laws and policies challenging the world today. The sixth edition responds to important developments arising subsequent to the fifth edition, relating, inter alia, to sustainable development, climate change, and energy. These developments include the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of 2015, the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change that replaced the Kyoto Protocol, and the challenges posed by renewable energy and global poverty. In sum, the book offers a synoptic overview, and instructive analysis of the relevant treaties, customary law, and soft law instruments governing all areas of international environmental law.
International Law and the Politics of History by
Call Number: KZ1242 .O74 2021
As the future of international law has become a growing site of struggle within and between powerful states, debates over the history of international law have become increasingly heated. International Law and the Politics of History explores the ideological, political, and material stakes of apparently technical disputes over how the legal past should be studied and understood. Drawing on a deep knowledge of the history, theory, and practice of international law, Anne Orford argues that there can be no impartial accounts of international law's past and its relation to empire and capitalism. Rather than looking to history in a doomed attempt to find a new ground for formalist interpretations of what past legal texts really mean or what international regimes are really for, she urges lawyers and historians to embrace the creative role they play in making rather than finding the meaning of international law.
International Law As We Know It: Cyberwar Discourse and the Construction of Knowledge in International Legal Scholarship by
Call Number: KZ6718 .B64 2021
International legal scholars tend to think of their work as the interpretation of rules: the application of a law 'out there' to concrete situations. This book takes a different approach to that scholarship: it views doctrine as a socio-linguistic practice. In other words, this book views legal scholars not as law-appliers, but as constructing knowledge within a particular academic discipline. By means of three close-ups of the discourse on cyberwar and international law, this book shows how international legal knowledge is constructed in ways usually overlooked: by means of footnotes, for example, or conference presentations. In so doing, this book aims to present a new way of seeing international legal scholarship: one that pays attention to the mundane parts of international legal texts and provides a different understanding of how international law as we know it comes about.
International Legal Research in a Nutshell by
Call Number: KZ1234 .H64 2021
This Nutshell provides a basic introduction to international and foreign legal research for the non-specialist. It offers guidance through the unfamiliar pathways of research using international and non-US legal materials and demystifies the world of treaties and international case law. Since it's aimed at the non-specialist, it provides straight-forward background information on the United Nations and the European Union and includes guidance using the documents and legal materials of these institutions. There are extensive links to the rich world of Web resources, but it also describes print research tools that remain important in this field. It also sets out a road map for approaching a research problem involving international, foreign and comparative law. Finally, there is information on keeping current on new information and resources as well as tips for how to do handle source collection and cite-checking an international law journal article. Additional teaching materials are available for this title, and include online links to research sources noted in the book: Appendix A: Comprehensive List of Sources Appendix B: Websites Containing National Law Appendix C: Web Treaty Collections Appendix D: Planning Your Research and Organizational Tools
Lawful by Design: Measuring Procedural Justice in Global Governance by
Call Number: KZ4850 .L57 2022
In recent years, the procedural rules of global governance institutions have come under scrutiny from scholars worldwide and have been conceptualized as akin to domestic administrative law. However, one question has so far not been addressed: who shapes this procedure and why? In the present work, Isabel Lischewski develops a simple matrix connecting procedure and state interest. When this matrix is applied to a sample of forty diverse institutions, fascinating patterns emerge, which are further explored through in-depth case studies. It is shown that states prefer to balance sovereignty preservation through procedure with the costs it entails. Thus, normative considerations are not the predominant basis on which this procedure is designed. The research provides original insights into the landscape of global governance procedure and cautions against a notion of "apolitical" administration law.
Lawyering Peace by
Call Number: KZ6787 .W55 2021
In all but the rarest circumstances, the world's deadly conflicts are ended not through outright victory, but through a series of negotiations. Not all of these negotiations, however, yield a durable peace. To successfully mitigate conflict drivers, the parties in conflict must address a number of puzzles, such as whether and how to share and/or re-establish a state's monopoly of force, reallocate the ownership and management of natural resources, modify the state structure, or provide for a path toward external self-determination. Successfully resolving these puzzles requires the parties to navigate a number of conundrums and make choices and design mechanisms that are appropriate to the particular context of the conflict, and which are most likely to lead to a durable peace. Lawyering Peace aims to help future negotiators build better and more durable peace agreements through a rigorous examination of how other parties have resolved these puzzles and associated conundrums.
Leaving Iberia: Islamic Law and Christian Conquest in North West Africa by
Call Number: KBP56 .H46 2021
Leaving Iberia: Islamic Law and Christian Conquest in North West Africa examines Islamic legal responses to Muslims living under Christian rule in medieval and early modern Iberia and North Africa. The fall of al-Andalus, or reconquista, has long been considered a turning point, when the first substantial Muslim populations fell under permanent Christian rule. Yet a near-exclusive focus on conquered Iberian Muslims has led scholars to overlook a substantial body of legal opinions issued in response to Portuguese and Spanish occupation in Morocco itself, beginning in the early fifteenth century. By moving beyond Iberia and following Christian conquerors and Muslim emigrants into North Africa, Leaving Iberia links the juristic discourses on conquered Muslims on both sides of the Mediterranean, critiques the perceived exceptionalism of the Iberian Muslim predicament, and adds a significant chapter to the story of Christian-Muslim relations in the medieval Mediterranean. The final portion of the book explains the disparate fates of these medieval legal opinions in colonial Algeria and Mauritania, where jurists granted lasting authority to some opinions and discarded others. Based on research in the Arabic manuscript libraries of five countries, Leaving Iberia offers the first fully annotated translations of the major legal texts under analysis.
New War Technologies and International Law: The Legal Limits to Weaponising Nanomaterials by
Call Number: KZ5624 .L45 2022
The desire for humanity and the desire for security have co-existed as long as humans have been alive. As science has become increasingly sophisticated, so have the methods of self-defence by States. Nanotechnology is already changing warfare by increasing capabilities upon which armed forces are heavily reliant: more efficient energy storage, advanced photovoltaics, and improved military protective equipment, to name a few of these developments. Some applications of nanomaterials by the military are both powerful and subtle, and have neurological and biological applications. The advance of the use or contemplation of use of these types of nanoscale applications by the military requires urgent analysis in light of existing international law, particularly in light of their potential effects on humans and on the environment.
Nuclear Weapons: Law, Policy, and Practice by
Call Number: KZ5665 .C37 2021
A new nuclear arms race is underway between Russia and the United States, one that focuses on the technology of delivery of nuclear warheads. This book describes how and why this race is happening, who still possesses nuclear weapons, and what constraints apply to those weapons under international law. A global nuclear ban treaty entered into force in January 2021, but the nuclear powers kept distant. The last remaining treaty restraining the arsenals of the two nuclear superpowers will expire in less than five years' time and the risk is that other States will turn to nuclear arms for their defence, further fracturing the non-proliferation regime installed after the Cuban missile crisis.
Nuclear Weapons Law by
Call Number: KZ5665 .B66 2022
This book examines the law relating to the possession, threat or use of nuclear weapons. By addressing in logical sequence the law regarding sovereignty, the threat or use of force, the conduct of nuclear hostilities, neutrality, weapons law and war crimes, the book illustrates the topics that an effective national command, control and communications system for nuclear weapons must address. Guidance is given on intractable issues, such as the responsibilities of remote submarine commanders. The continuing relevance of the ICJ's Nuclear Advisory Opinion is assessed, and the prospects for the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons are discussed. The book has been written in an accessible style so that it will be equally useful to lawyers and practitioners, including relevant commanders, politicians, policy staffs and academics. The objective is to state the law accurately and to explain its implications and provide practical guidance in this most sensitive area. This book is also available as open access.
Orphanage Trafficking in International Law by
Call Number: KZ7155 .V36 2021
Orphanage Trafficking in International Law explores the process of orphanage trafficking as a form of child trafficking in international law, examining the contexts in which it occurs and providing a comprehensive, holistic approach to addressing the issue as a form of trafficking. In doing so, this book establishes the method and process of orphanage trafficking as an issue of international concern. It reconceptualises the activity of orphanage tourism as a demand driver for child trafficking and a form of exploitation, and makes recommendations for how countries where orphanage trafficking occurs, as well as countries that contribute to orphanage trafficking via funding and volunteers, should tackle the issue.
The Poseidon Project: The Struggle to Govern the World's Oceans by
Call Number: KZA1145 .B678 2022
A vibrant exploration of past and present controversies surrounding control of the world's oceans.In 1609, the Dutch lawyer Hugo Grotius rejected the idea that even powerful rulers could own the oceans. "A ship sailing through the sea," he wrote, "leaves behind it no more legal right than it does a track." A philosophical and legal battle ensued, but Grotius's view ultimately prevailed. To thisday, "freedom of the seas" remains an important legal principle and a powerful rhetorical tool.Yet in recent decades, freedom of the seas has eroded in multiple ways and for a variety of reasons. During the world wars of the 20th century, combatants imposed unprecedented restrictions on maritime commerce, leaving international rules in tatters. National governments have steadily expandedtheir reach into the oceans. More recently, environmental concerns have led to new international restrictions on high seas fishing. Today's most dangerous maritime disputes-including China's push for control of the South China Sea-are occurring against the backdrop of major changes in the way theworld treats the oceans.As David Bosco shows in The Poseidon Project, the history of humanity's attempt to create rules for the oceans is alive and relevant. Tracing the roots of the law of the sea and the background to current maritime disputes, he shows that building effective ocean rules while preserving maritimefreedoms remains a daunting task. Bosco analyzes how fragile international institutions and determined activists are struggling for relevance in a world still dominated by national governments. As maritime tensions develop, The Poseidon Project will serve as an essential guide to the continuingchallenge of ocean governance.
Rewriting Histories of the Use of Force by
Call Number: KZ6368 .V463 2021
It is commonly taught that the prohibition of the use of force is an achievement of the twentieth century and that beforehand States were free to resort to the arms as they pleased. International law, the story goes, was 'indifferent' to the use of force. 'Reality' as it stems from historical sources, however, appears much more complex. Using tools of history, sociology, anthropology and social psychology, this monograph offers new insights into the history of the prohibition of the use of force in international law. Conducting in-depth analysis of nineteenth century doctrine and State practice, it paves the way for an alternative narrative on the prohibition of force, and seeks to understand the origins of international law's traditional account. In so doing, it also provides a more general reflection on how the discipline writes, rewrites and chooses to remember its own history.
The Right of Access to Environmental Information by
Call Number: K3585 .W45 2021
The book discusses the normative impact of the Aarhus Convention on how England, America and China guarantees the right of access to environmental information. Through this analysis the book identifies each of these jurisdictions' unique conceptualisations of the right which, in turn, influences the design of their respective environmental information regimes. This allows these jurisdictions potentially to act as sources of legal reforms for each other to improve how the right is guaranteed via legal transplant theory, challenging the normativity of the Aarhus Convention. This is not to suggest that the Aarhus Convention exerts no normative influence on how the right is guaranteed; there are core substantive and core procedural elements which have to be met for the right to be effectively guaranteed, and the book shows that the Aarhus Convention does exert a normative influence over the procedural elements of the right.
The Rights and Obligations of States in Disputed Maritime Areas by
Call Number: KZA1686 .L64 2021
Many disputed maritime areas exist around the world. Often, the States concerned have not been able to reach agreement on how to, for example, regulate commercial activities within such areas. Conflict regularly arises between claimant coastal States if one of them acts unilaterally, such as in the South China Sea. This book examines the rights and obligations States have under international law concerning disputed maritime areas, in the first comprehensive treatment of this highly topical and pressing issue. It analyses conventional law, general international law, judicial decisions, State practice, and academic opinions that shine a light on the international legal framework that is applicable in disputed maritime areas. Proposing practical solutions on how to interpret the relevant international law, the book discusses the extent to which it currently provides clear guidance to States, and how international courts and tribunals have dealt with cases related to activities in disputed maritime areas.
Saving the International Justice Regime: by
Call Number: KZ7230 .H55 2021
While resistance to international courts is not new, what is new, or at least newly conceptualized, is the politics of backlash against these institutions. Saving the International Justice Regime: Beyond Backlash against International Courts is at the forefront of this new conceptualization of backlash politics. It brings together theories, concepts and methods from the fields of international law, international relations, human rights and political science and case studies from around the globe to pose - and answer - three questions related to backlash against international courts: What is backlash and what forms does it take? Why do states and elites engage in backlash against international human rights and criminal courts? What can stakeholders and supporters of international justice do to meet these contemporary challenges?
The Sentimental Life of International Law: Literature, Language, and Longing in World Politics by
Call Number: KZ3410 .S567 2021
The Sentimental Life of International Law is about our age-old longing for a decent international society and the ways of seeing, being, and speaking that might help us achieve that aim. This book asks how international lawyers might engage in a professional practice that has become, to adapta title of Janet Malcolm's, both difficult and impossible. It suggests that international lawyers are disabled by the governing idioms of international lawyering, and proposes that they may be re-enabled by speaking different sorts of international law, or by speaking international law in differentsorts of ways.In this methodologically diverse and unusually personal account, Gerry Simpson brings to the surface international law's hidden literary prose and offers a critical and redemptive account of the field. He does so in a series of chapters on international law's bathetic underpinnings, its friendlyrelations, the neurotic foundations of its underlying social order, its screened-off comic dispositions, its anti-method, and the life-worlds of its practitioners. Finally, the book closes with a chapter in which international law is re-envisioned through the practice of gardening. All of this isput forward as a contribution to the project of making international law, again, a compelling language for our times.
The Three Ages of International Commercial Arbitration by
Call Number: K2400 .S35 2022
Drawing on a wide range of previously unpublished sources, this unique history of international commercial arbitration in the modern era identifies three periods in its development: the Age of Aspirations (c. 1780-1920), the Age of Institutionalization (1920s-1950s), and the Age of Autonomy (1950s-present). Mikaël Schinazi analyzes the key features of each period, arguing that the history of international commercial arbitration has oscillated between moments of renewal and anxiety. During periods of renewal, new approaches, instruments, and institutions were developed to carry international commercial arbitration forward. These developments were then reined in during periods of anxiety, for fear that international arbitration might be overstepping its bounds. The resulting tension between renewal and anxiety is a key thread running through the evolution of international commercial arbitration. This book fills a key gap in the scholarship for anyone interested in the fields of international arbitration, legal history, and international law.
Time for Reparations: A Global Perspective by
Call Number: KZ6785 .T56 2021
In this sweeping international perspective on reparations, Time for Reparations makes the case that past state injustice--be it slavery or colonization, forced sterilization or widespread atrocities--has enduring consequences that generate ongoing harm, which needs to be addressed as a matter of justice and equity. Time for Reparations provides a wealth of detailed and diverse examples of state injustice, from enslavement of African Americans in the United States and Roma in Romania to colonial exploitation and brutality in Guatemala, Algeria, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Guadeloupe. From many vantage points, contributing authors discuss different reparative strategies and the impact they would have on the lives of survivor or descent communities. One of the strengths of this book is its interdisciplinary perspective--contributors are historians, anthropologists, human rights lawyers, sociologists, and political scientists. Many of the authors are both scholars and advocates, actively involved in one capacity or another in the struggles for reparations they describe. The book therefore has a broad and inclusive scope, aided by an accessible and cogent writing style. It appeals to scholars, students, advocates and others concerned about addressing some of the most profound and enduring injustices of our time.
Transboundary Freshwater Ecosystems in International Law: The Role and Impact of the UNECE Environmental Regime by
Call Number: KZ3685 .M69 2021
A global water crisis with far-reaching and interconnected environmental, social, health and economic impacts threatens the world. Healthy ecosystems and ecosystem services are degrading, and access to a sustainable water supply is increasingly inequitable both within and between States. This book demonstrates how to overcome the global freshwater ecosystem crisis by matching the scientific recommendations with an international legal framework fit for the task, which re-orientates international water law towards a stronger ecosystem approach that also protects vulnerable societies. It illustrates how to understand the fragmented legally binding and non-binding instruments of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe environmental treaties as one coherent legal regime, which contributes to strengthening general rules and principles of the law concerning transboundary freshwater ecosystems. With the recent global opening of the UNECE regime, this book explores its potential role within the European region, Central Asia, Caucasus, Africa, the Middle East and beyond.
The Trials of Rasmea Odeh: How a Palestinian Guerrilla Gained and Lost U.S. Citizenship by
Call Number: KF228.O34 L83 2021
On February 21, 1969, a bomb exploded in the largest supermarket in Jerusalem. The blast killed two and injured many more, triggering an intense search for the terrorists behind the plot. Israeli security forces quickly apprehended, tortured, tried, and eventually convicted twenty-one-year-old Palestinian Rasmea Odeh for murder. Twenty-five years later, however, Odeh was not serving a life sentence in an Israeli prison but instead starting a new life in the United States, first in Detroit and later in Chicago, eventually becoming a naturalized citizen and working as a community organizer. Her arrest by U.S. federal authorities in 2013 on charges of unlawful procurement of citizenship and subsequent trial ignited defenders and detractors, even as the facts of the case, the previous conviction, and those of Odeh's life were obscured or ignored. Based on extensive research, The Trials of Rasmea Odeh separates fact from fiction as it follows the remarkable twists of this story, even--or especially--where those facts subvert one political narrative or another. The result is that rare book that is both an extraordinary achievement of scholarly research and a gripping, accessible, and engaging narrative, making it an invaluable resource for discussion of the issues of citizenship, statehood, and the limits of legality this story engages. Distributed for George Mason University Press
Understanding Administrative Law in the Common Law World by
Call Number: K3400 .D35 2021
Around the common law world, the law of judicial review of administrative action has changed dramatically in recent decades, accelerating a centuries-long process of incremental evolution. This book offers a fresh framework for understanding the core features of contemporary administrativelaw. Through comparative analysis of case law from Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, and New Zealand, the author develops an interpretive approach by reference to four values: individual self-realisation, good administration, electoral legitimacy, and decisional autonomy. The interaction of thisplurality of values explains the structure of the vast field of judicial review of administrative action: institutional structures, procedural fairness, substantive review, remedies, restrictions on remedies, and the scope of judicial review. Addressing this wide array of subjects in detail, thebook demonstrates how a pluralist approach, with the values being employed in a complementary and balanced fashion, can enhance our understanding of administrative law. Furthermore, such an approach can guide the future development of the law of judicial review of administrative action, a pointillustrated by a careful analysis of the unsettled doctrinal area of legitimate expectation. The book closes by arguing that the author's values-based, pluralist framework supports the legitimacy of contemporary administrative law which, although sometimes called into question, facilitates theflourishing of individuals, of public administration, and of the liberal democratic system.
Unrecognized Entities: Perspectives in International, European and Constitutional Law by
Call Number: KZ4041 .U57 2022
The book, which covers contributions from leading international and European law scholars and analyzes the legal and political status quo of non-recognized entities, comprises three parts. The first and the second part focus on contemporary trends of legal theory and practice concerning issues pertaining to secession and non-recognized entities in international and European law, respectively. Additionally, it touches upon EU policies, the issue of EU citizenship in light of secessionist movements in Europe, and the phenomenon of exterritorial naturalization within non-recognized entities. The third part scrutinizes the legal systems of non-recognized entities in the post-Soviet area, covering Eastern Ukraine, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria, and Nagorno-Karabakh.
Violent Modernities: Cultural Lives of Law in the New India by
Call Number: KNS465 .S572 2021
Law and violence are thought to share an antithetical relationship in postcolonial modernity. Violence is considered the other of law, lawlessness is understood to produce violence, and law is invoked and deployed to undo the violence of lawlessness. Violent Modernities uses a critical legal perspective to show that law and violence in the New India share a deep intimacy, where one symbiotically feeds the other. Researched and written between 2008 and 2018, the chapters study the cultural sites of literature, cinema, people's movements, popular media and the university to illustrate how law's promises of emancipation and performances of violence live a life of entangled contradictions. The book foregrounds reparative and ethical accounts where law does not only inhabit courtrooms, legislations and judgments, but also lives in the quotidian and minor practices of disobediences, uncertainties, vulnerabilities, double binds and failures. When the cultural lives of law are reimagined as such, the book argues, the violence at the foundations of modern law in the postcolony begins to unravel.
The Work of Rape by
Call Number: KZ7162 .J35 2021
In The Work of Rape Rana M. Jaleel argues that the redefinition of sexual violence within international law as a war crime, crime against humanity, and genocide owes a disturbing and unacknowledged debt to power and knowledge achieved from racial, imperial, and settler colonial domination. Prioritizing critiques of racial capitalism from women of color, Indigenous, queer, trans, and Global South perspectives, Jaleel reorients how violence is socially defined and distributed through legal definitions of rape. From Cold War conflicts in Latin America, the 1990s ethnic wars in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the War on Terror to ongoing debates about sexual assault on college campuses, Jaleel considers how legal and social iterations of rape and the terms that define it--consent, force, coercion--are unstable indexes and abstractions of social difference that mediate racial and colonial positionalities. Jaleel traces how post-Cold War orders of global security and governance simultaneously transform the meaning of sexualized violence, extend US empire, and disavow legacies of enslavement, Indigenous dispossession, and racialized violence within the United States. Duke University Press Scholars of Color First Book Award recipient